Friday, August 29, 2014


    In this Sutra, 4 different stages of Samadhi were described.As I stated it starts with lower level and then goes higher. We start with external point of attraction and then we don't need it physically as we can just 'think' of it and concentrate on it. This is the VITARK stage of Samadhi , the SAVITARK and NIRVITARK. This one is at the level of senses, which is the lowest level . After significant practice of this stage , we go higher level. In this stage,the external object becomes subtler.So as soon as we think of the statue, we can concentrate. Then slowly we loose touch with the time and place and can do the concentration more easily at any time and any place, without needing the statue . Just the thought is enough.
     Now we come to the next stage. This is called ANAND. The meaning of ANAND is bliss or happiness.This is at the level of Ego. We need to understand how we get to be happy . Generally speaking there are 3 reasons why we are Happy. The first is sense organ pleasure. When we eat , what we like and love , we are happy as we experience pleasure.. This is the lowest level of the happiness. It could be procreation , excretion or hunger, all of these are lower levels of the pleasures, we are working at the senses level . Then there is a little higher level of Mind .When we wish something , getting a promotion or getting a child or our child getting a success in examination or sport or something etc , we are happy Here the mind is happy . SO called Love from Heart, not from just sense pleasure.. The next one is  what happens in the SAMADHI. In the first two causes we think that the source of happiness is outside us , in a external source. So if I eat an ice cream , I think ice cream gives me the happiness . If I listen to a music , the music causes the happiness . But if it is so , then every one should 'like' same food as the food causes the happiness. But it is not so.Many may not like the steak or ice cream and do not get happiness . If every sexual act was giving happiness , then even rape would be pleasurable. But it is not.So now it is clear that the pleasure is within our mind and not in senses.So when the we concentrate and we have some success in having the union with the Self , we perceive the happiness. This is not related to our external source of statue or even thinking about it , but we JUST FEEL HAPPY. This is the called the SANAND level .The reason it is called to be at the level of Ego or AHANKAR , is because we are still not free from the bodily attachment of the self. This is the ego.
        In the next level , which is called SASMITA level .ASMI  means 'I AM'. There subtle difference in these two stages . Whenever there is any emotion , or happiness , it is due to the GUNAS , So even though we are experiencing the happiness , we are still not FREE. This happens  when no other thought is left , not even the happiness , but the feeling of "i".These are the 4 stages of SAMPRDNYAT SAMADHI.
     Again the progress is very slow in first two , but then it is little faster . But there is no alternative to the 'practice'. This is need to be in association with the change in day to day behaviour. (Does and Don'ts of behaviour).But one thing for sure . NO ONE CAN DO BRAIN SURGERY BY READING BOOK ON BRAIN SURGERY , ONE HAS TO PRACTICE . Same holds true about achieving the SAMADHI .  

Wednesday, August 27, 2014




      Now this sutra is talking about the stages of the samadhi, called Sampradnyat Samadhi.So the first stage is called Vitark , then the next is Vichar, then is the Sanad and then is Sasmit. In each level there is different level at our body.The first 2 have subclasses. Vitark has Savitrk and Nirvitark.and the Vichar has Savichar and Nirvikar.
      When the devote starts to do meditation, he starts at lower level and then as he progresses , he goes higher and higher. When he meditates at the level of senses, it sill the lowest level. So when we meditate , we try to 'engage' the different senses to help concentrate our mind or Chitta. So we may have slow music to engage our hearing , burn scented candle to engage our sense of smell and a oil or Ghee lamp along with a statue or picture of the Deity to engage our mind and sight.We sit in a comfortable position, without any noise around, so as to allow best concentration. It is also advised to not have eaten heavy meals in last few hours,so as to avoid it causing stomach upset or induce sleep.This all helps us to concentrate . But we still need the help of all these external sources ,so this is called Vitark. We are also advised to chant a Mantra, understand the meaning.and understand or have the 'knowledge'. So our attention is still with all these external help. So this is called SA-VITARK. Once we start concentrating without having to have 'word'or it's 'meaning' or 'understand' it.Now we can just concentrate on the object of our affection , like statue of our favorite God,In this stage we still needs the help from outside sources to prevent our senses wandering and breaking our concentration.So this is still a VITARK , but the sub class called NIRVITARK.
      So in Vitark state of samadhi, we have concentration of mind with help of all the physical help from external sources.Once the devotee practices this for long time , he starts getting better. As mentioned before,the devotee does not need the words, their meaning,or the knowledge that comes with it. He can concentrate without the them . The next state is when one does not even need the statue or the picture or all the other things that are needed before. He can just 'think' about the God and he sees it in front of his eyes and he can concentrate on it. So just the 'Vichar' which means thought, brings the appearance of the statue in front of him. This is the early state of the VICHAR samadhi. When one is aware of the 'time'or 'place', it is called SAVICHAR.So we can just close eyes and think of the God and then we get in to the samadhi. It does not matter, where we are. Then we go in to the state of samadhi, we loose the contact with the time or place and this is called NIR-VICHAR SAMADHI.Something else also happens in this state. We start looking at subtle part of the GOD or the statue. In the very beginning we are aware of all the external things. When there is little noise , we get disturbed , then we are OK even when there is external disturbance , we are able to concentrate , as long as the statue is in front of us . Then we don't need the actual statue and can get in the trance,without the statue, at any time , any place though we are aware of it. And then we loose the time and are not aware of the appearance of the statue , what it is made of . We start looking 'beyond 'it . So the appearance ,which very important in the beginning stages is not important at all .We are beyond it . This is called NIVICHAR SAMADHI.
    One last word. As we start achieving higher stare, we get more subtle.Senses are 'gross',then the 'mind' is subtle. and then the intellect and ego are still subtler.  

Sunday, August 24, 2014




    We were told that when we control the waves of thought in our mind, we have union with the prusha.The thoughts arise due to 5 different causes. The GUNAS  are part of NATURE  or PRAKRUTI,and spirit is independent observer, but it appears to be part of NATURE, when obscured by GUNAS.So when there is complete 'understanding or knowledge' of SPIRIT or PURUSHA, then there is no attachment left to even GUNAS.Whenever there is GUNA, there is going to be an effect. As we recollect , the Tamasic Guna leads to laziness or vice or inertia ,the Rajasic Guna leads to action and the Satwic to Purity.So even when we have dispassion there is still likely hood of attachment to at least Satwic Guna , if not Rajasic or Tamasic. But at this level of evolution , there is no desire to even do a good deal .
    " I do not do anything , I am just an independent observer," This the attitude of the devotee who has achieved this level.There are several levels of the SAMADHI and each level has a different cosmic  planes and at subjective level.So when we go in to higher levels , different plane are achieved.I will sumerise it in this SUTRA as starting with next one we will be talking about they will discuss the same .
      In the subjective plane, it is CHITTA or the mind and PRAKRUTI at the cosmic level, the samadhi is ASAMPRADNYAT SAMADHI. At the level of intellect it is SASMITA SAMADHI.,at the Ego level it is called  SANANAD SAMADHI and at cosmic plane it is AHANKAR.At the senses level it is NIRVICHAR SAVICHAR SAMADHI, and at the physical body level it is NIRVITARK AND SAVITARK SAMADHI.This all sounds confusing , but it is easy once we know the meaning of these words.At each level , there is some power that devotee experiences .But that will be the next one.

Friday, August 22, 2014




    We in this world know things through our sense organs . So we see ,we  touch , we hear , and we smell,and we taste.So when we have contact of external objects to our mind,,through our sense organs, we either have 'good' or 'bad' feeling. We either like it or we hate it. This leads to the desire to have it, if the experience was happy and desire to avoid it if the experience was painful.As we have seen before , this causes thought waves . So if we like Pizza and have tasted , then when we see pizza or when we are hungry , we have a desire to eat pizza.The repeated experiences will lead to more firm impression and that leads to more firm desire. This is called circle of mind.So the action leads to experience , that leads to impression and impression leads to desire,which leads to action again.So this is 1st of the attractions.
    The second one is what has been told to us by scriptures or learned people or saints.So this is called ANUSHRAVIK , the one that we have 'heard'.The concept of heaven or hell ,concept of Satan so on are some of the examples of this type. Then there are thing that are told to us .Foe example ,we are told that if we practice the meditation for long time we will have powers to read mind or see in the future or cure a disease or we can transfer ourselves from one place to another in no time etc..Again these are experienced by others and we are told that we can experience them. So we develop desires to acquire these powers. We want to experience the Heaven and we want to have the powers to do things that we normally can not, the powers that we are told we can have .This is also an attachments.And then when we are meditating, the thoughts will come related to it.(thoughts of having powers or experiencing Heaven etc.)So when we have no thoughts related to either one of these then we have achieved some level of dispassion.
    Now the questions arise what is the difference between the animals and the human beings.This is important to understand as although we are 'animals' and we have 'evolved 'over several lives,we are still animals.The animals act on instinct. So when they are hungry , they will eat , whatever is front of them. (as long as they can eat it ). If it is hot, they will go in shade , if it is raining they will find a shelter. With the animals in 'heat' they will have sex.They do not not do this at random.But we human beings  try to find out more comfortable life and 'create' things to enjoy and further our pleasures. We are the only 'animals' who have sex at random. But the GOD gave us the discriminating powers. We have conscience and we can think and decide if some thing is good or bad.Also we have curiosity about the world and have the concept of the GOD and we try to 'solve ' the problems and have the answers.These thing are not given to pure animals.Only Humans have these abilities.You don't see dog meditating. So we need to 'use 'this God given gift, rather than wasting our life in having more pleasures as having more pleasures will make us attach to this mortal body and brings us back to cycles of life and death.So slowly we need to get out of these attachments and break the cycle. This does not mean we need to not live in a house or not have A.C. or we should not enjoy good food .It means that one should not get attached to these thing.
     As was mentioned in the past all the thought process is due to 3 GUNAS.So when the Tamasic Guna is dominant , then we are idle , involved in overindulgence of food , alcohol etc. When there is dominance of Rajasic Guna, then the mind is thrown outward, to external attraction and enjoyment and 'action'. And when the SATWIC Guna gets upper hand then we start realising that the external sources of enjoyments are 'transient' and superficial and satisfy only the physical body. This realisation makes us 'look' inside and towards the solution for changing this situation.So this the earliest stage of change of mind .or the VAIRAGYA.This is called YATAMANAM (YAT-MANAM).Here the individual is making efforts and has some decreased inclination for bodily pleasure and development of mental pleasure . He starts some chanting , some meditation , some reduction in bodily enjoyment etc.
    As we practice this path of chanting, meditation and trying to avoid the situation where we will be indulging, then our day to day behavioral changes.Then there is progress in the mental attitude .He starts having some control over certain faculties .So we still do not have control on all the desires , but have some control on some of the desires.This is the stage called VYATIREKAM.This is the second stage.
    In the next stage , which is the 3rd stage, there is further progress. The desires are part of  physical sense organs of the body , the mind and the intellect. So we can control the organs of perception, but not the mind.(physically we may not drink alcohol or indulge in excessive eating or a particular food , but the mind may continue to have thoughts of this.) In the next stage the mind is under control, but the intellect is not firmly in it.So we may have 'gaps' in our study.The seed of the desires are still not uprooted. So they pop up at times.This is called EKENDRIYA VAIRAGYA.
    The next one which is described in this Sutra is called VASHIKAR VAIRAGYA.The stage is reaches by the devotee , when he has burned all the desires and his mind does not deviate by attractions.If one watches his behaviour, it may not be any any different than average person.So he eats same food that everyone else eats , he will mingle among others and may be seen in as a normal average person. But these things do not affect him . As we saw every 'action' has ' impreesion' ,and 'impressin' leads to desire and desire leads to action . So how come the action does not lead to more bondage , or attachments and desires  in this devotee?If the seeds of desires are sown ,then there is going to be the tree and the fruits of these seeds are bound to be there. Only way we can explain this that these are 'raosted' seeds.So they are incapable of sprouting and get in to any fruits.This may be compared to seed falling on a rock or having no fertiliser, water and so does not grow in to a plant.This is the VASHIKAR VAIRAGYA. This is not the ultimate state.

Thursday, August 21, 2014




     So the previous Sutra talked about doing the practice to achieve the single pointedness of the mind . Now this sutra clarifies some of the details . We today are the society of 'instsnt gratification' So we want to know as to when we take Tylenol how long will it take to see the effect.So this Sutra tells us that one has to practice the meditation for long time . But it is different than working 40 quarters to get social security.Then it does not matter if we work continuously, as long as total is 40 quarters.No with this practice one must do the abhyasa or meditation daily and continuously  everyday.Some people will tell that one has to do as much as 3-4 hours for many years . Please note that the development of the mind and concentration is never wasted. So if one does the practice this life it will be effective in next life. So we will have some effect from our efforts ,practice from last life . But if we take breaks , then we will not be progressing as fast as if we do the practice it daily without break. Think about playing golf or tennis . If we play every day we will be better than if we play only on weekends or only once in a while.So each one of us is at different levels of level and each will need different time to get at higher level.
     The second important point is one can not achieve the goal if we continue to practice without 'firmly believing ' in it.So just the practice is not good enough, unless it is accompanied by trust and devotion.Many of us do the meditation and then complained that we are not successful or that "No one really knows that one can achieve it". So if we don't have the faith , then we will not be successful. This does not mean that we have to believe and everything then anybody in orange clothes tell us.But we should either a Guru and follow him faithfully.
     The last point is about the time . If one wants to become a  physician, he or she has to do 12 years of school, then 4 years of college and then 4 years of medical school and then if he or she wants to more than 'just MD' then 3 years of more medicine and then the specialisation for 3 or mor years . This is for the simple medical science where the human body ,the 'model' does not change . If our goal is 'perceiving  GOD' certainly more years of practice is needed

Wednesday, August 20, 2014


                                              TATRA STHITAU YATNO ABHYASAH


        In the last sutra ,it was stated that efforts or practice and dispassion will lead to the success.So in this one it is stated that the the effort that is done is called the abhyas.In regular talk the Abhyas is translated as 'study' .So One may not know as to how do you study?Do you read scripture?Or do we do more rituals or do we change our behaviour or do we donate to charity?This sutra stated that persistent practice to control the thought waves . By reading religious books or scriptures we will not achieve our goal. By doing charity we will not  achieve goals. Even though all these things will help, WE MUST PRACTICE TECHNIQUES OF CONCENTRATION.One can not become brain surgeon, by reading surgical text book.One has to learn in the books and then PRACTICE  the surgical techniques. After doing it for number of times only , he can do it better and more practice will make it perfect. Same is true of controlling mind.We are not going to be successful at our first attempt or second attempt and this should not discourage  us . But we should continue the practice .
        To expand on the efforts just doing meditation is not enough. The various other day to day life changes that need to be done will be described in latter sutras . But to understand this limitation on our daily life activity, I am going to tell a story. To prevents the different thoughts arising in our mind , we need to know why we get thoughts . We get thoughts as we have attachments to different things.I am attached to my job , income , possessions, family,health and many other things . So as long as we have these attachments , the thoughts can not be prevented from arising. So the dispassion is the solution.Even if we have dispassion , we got to practice thought control, as some thoughts come and go unrelated to our attachments.So the repeated practice is essential.
       So now the story. Maharishi Vyas had a son. His name was SHUKA , also called SHUKAMUNI.When he was conceived and was in the mother's womb , he did not want to come out as the world that he would have to face was not good . So the mother continued to carry the pregnancy for 12 years . She got tired and could not carry it any further.So she told Vyas and he requested the son  to come out . He told him that he had such great dispassion , that he would not be affected by the temptations in this world.So the Shuka came out . His father taught what he knew , but it was apparent to him soon that the son knew everything.So he told him to go to a king JANAKA. (think about it The saint was sending him to a king , who enjoys everything in like, living in luxury and having all the sense satisfactions. So do not have to go to forest to practice dispassion).So the SHUKA went to the king .While they were going to the king, they were passing through a jungle and there was a lake.There were some ladies were swimming  in it . As the SHUKA muni passed by the ladies did not do anything. But when the Vyas passed by , the ladies covered themselves.So the Shuka felt that he is even better than his older father as the ladies knew that their nudity would not bother him , but they were not sure about his older father.So his ego was inflated.He went to the king and sent a message to the king that said,'I SHUKA muni has come to him leaving everything.' The king sent a message back that 'You can come in only when you left everything.'SHUKA could not understand. So he sent the same message again and got the same reply. Then it struck him . As long as he was identifying himself with the body -mortal body as SHUKA , he had not 'left; everything.
      Then the king asked the SHUKA to to carry a cup filed with oil up to the brim, without spilling a drop and do 7 rounds around the palatial room . There was singing and dancing going around . But without paying any attention to all the things that were going on he did go around with no problem.(The  moral was that you can stay in this mortal world and not get attached and keep your attention on the same goal all the time even if you are doing day to day chores,)Then he asked him to put in the mouth a candy for 30 minutes . When the king took it out it was not even wet. This proved that SHUKA had complete dispassion . So the king told him that he could not teach him anything more .
This is true dispassion . 

Sunday, August 17, 2014


                               ABHYSA VAIRAGYA ABHYAM TAD NIRODHAH

        We saw in the previous sutras that the waves of the thoughts arise related to 5 different things.As long as these thoughts continue to be there , we can not uncover the real ME.As we saw it as long as the thoughts are there then the real ME aligns itself with the body and so it is unable to realise that it is independent of the body.(And I mean all 5 bodies.)So this sutra tells us how to control these vrities or the thoughts. So it says that if we 'practice' and develop 'dispassion' then we can achieve it. The mind is compared to flow of river. We may think that the water is same , but in reality the water is flowing continuously and is changing all  the time .So are the thoughts. If you analyse the last 15 minutes of the thoughts that you had , you will realise that you started with one thought and then it gives rise to another and an a another and so on . I may think about this blog , then it takes me to second thought as to who is going to read it , that leads to next one as to am I being clear enough  for any one to understand it , or can I ever make an E-book out of it or make money , then donate it or whatever. So the 'flow of thoughts is like flow of water in a river, constantly changing and constantly present , with no break. Second similarity is that as much as river can flow downstream . we can go upstream. So as much as our thoughts are related to the 'OUT SIDE' world, we can reverse and make it upstream towards our ORIGIN.
      One fact comes out of the chain of thoughts that may not be obvious without pointing out, is that first thought has to disappear or die, before next one comes . So even though it is a chain , there is a extremely short time interval that there is NO THOUGHT. It is so small that we don't perceive it It is like series of still photographs, if we see them rapidly, we will see a motion picture.When we watch a movie, we don't perceive it as series of several, pictures.Same is with thoughts. So even though we don't know or feel there little gap and we need to learn to increase that gap with practice .This called 'study' or ABHYAS., which is nothing more than practice .
      Now why do we get thoughts . If we know as to the origin of the thoughts , then we can stop it.So let us go back to the previous sutras. So if I see thing it provoke a thought. Let us say I see ice cream , I will have desire to eat it , then next one will tell me that it is fattening or not good for cholesterol etc. But let us say I have never seen ice cream , would I have any thoughts?Let us say I don't have any 'desire to eat it ,no thoughts would come.So having no desires will lead to stoppage of our thoughts. Sometimes we create thought by the attachments. Let me clarify . I buy an expensive car. So I will have thoughts of , how I am going to maintain it , how am I going to drive , take care of it , where am I going to get money for repairs .But if I do not own a car I don't have to worry about any of these and I will have no thoughts related to car . This is called dispassion .
     So by doing the study or practice and by dispassion we can control our thoughts or not have them arise at all .

Friday, August 15, 2014



      The five different things that create the waves in our mind were mentioned in past sutras. Now this one explains the 5th and the last one.Memory is recollections of previously experienced things. So we can not remember thing that we have never experienced. In the process of recollection,we may depend upon any of the previous;y mentioned things that we normally use to come to a conclusion. Say for example we are in a house and hear the sounds of screeching tires . We conclude that some car went by with sudden increase in speed . Or it is 4th of July and we hear sounds out side , we conclude that there must be fire crackers going on .In the first case we base our conclusion based on previous experience and our conclusion was right . In second case same thing was applied , but we could be wrong as the sound that we hear may be a gun fire and not fire crackers.(SEE SUTRA7 FOR THE 3 DIFFERENT WAYS THAT WE CONCLUDE.)
         In any case we must have had experienced it before. Now some one may state that the recent research had shown that false memory can be implanted in anyone by telling a story. Young kids who were told about getting lost in moll ( false story ),in series of different childhood memories that were real, could recollect the false memories in great detail, when asked about it in future. In this case it is still a memory and it may not be actually experienced by them , but it still was memory that was created by repeatedly being told. We can not recollect anything that we have never heard , or seen or experienced with any one of our 5 sense perception organs .
       So these are 5 different categories of the thought waves.
       In the next one we will know how to control these waves .

Wednesday, August 13, 2014


                             ABHAV  PRATYAYA  AALAMBAN  VRITTI  NIDRA
   We believe that during the sleep we have no thoughts or no experience that our sense organs give to us .So we may have no mental  tendencies.And if we have the mind which is without the waves of the thoughts , then this would become SAMADHI, as is seen in Nirudha state of mind as described before . So we don't have to try hard , doing all the practices of all the 'DOES' AND 'DON'TS'. We can just fall asleep and be done with it . But this is far from the truth. In sleep there are tendencies and even though there are no external stimuli to provoke thoughts , we still have thoughts.So sleep is tendency of the mind , and when we experience 'nothing', it is also an experience .
    The different states of mind is described in earlier sutra-2.The first 3 of them , MUDHA ,KSHIPTA, AND VIKSHIPTA are are related to predominance of one or other GUNAS.So when the TAMOGUNA is dominant then we have MUDHA state.When the RAJOGUNA is dominant then we have KSHIPTA state.When the SATWA GUNA starts getting stronger , then the VIKSHIPTA state is there.This is when we are awake. When we start having TAMOGUNA dominance , then we feel LAZY, , little more of it leads to drowsiness(in these two states we still have some contact with external stimuli),and then comes the sleep These 3 states are 'natural'states . The two other states , which are known , one is state of mind is HYPNOTISM, and second is unconscious state, are not normal states of sleep.Our previous experiences in this and previous lives are not all active in this life and do not come to surface in this life . But under hypnosis, (called TANDRA STATE), some of these thoughts or memories can be brought to surface , but like sleep when the person wakes up ,he can not remember them .
      I wanted to clear one thing. The Tamoguna is INACTIVITY, the Rajoguna is Activity, and in Satwic , there is KNOWLEDGE . So sleep is predominance of Tamoguna.
      In sleep we may not remember anything , but when we don't remember anything , we are actually REMEMBERING nothing .Since we can not remember anything that we have not experienced , we must have experienced Nothing 'before.So if our mind is continuous state of single minded state, are we not in the state of EKAGRA mind state, which precursor to SAMADHI? The answer is no .Unless we try it with disciplined mind , it can not be samadhi. And in samadhi , we have 3 things, the observer, the the object that is observed(or concentrated upon), and the thing that holds.None of these things are in sleep .To state in another, when a weak , coward person decides not to fight, it is not out of control of mind and can not be credited.
      So in short, sleep is tendency of mind . We do have thoughts in spite of absence of external stimuli.And there are 5 different states laziness, drowsiness and sleep which are normal and 2 abnormal hypnosis and unconscious.

Sunday, August 10, 2014




The nest one that is explained here is called VIKALPA.When one says a word , it conveys a meaning. So if I say a word 'DOG' ,it tells me exactly what it means . So the words explain the meaning. But sometimes when we say certain thing , it conveys the meaning, but it is not real .If I would say 'ICECOLD SUN'.It does convey the meaning. But there is no cold sun. So even though words have meaning, they do not convey any real knowledge.Similar examples can be given, 'horn of a rabbit',would be an another example..So why would we use these kinds of words? We tend to use them sometimes to prove a point If one wants to prove that in case of a triangle, sum of two sides is greater than the third side . So we suppose that the sum is less than the third side or it is same . And then disprove it and that prove our original point.This is also used to find out what is soul. This type of thinking to find out certain things that we can't what they exactly are , we suppose that they are something different than what they are and then disprove it. This will become more clear when we talk about the PURUSHA .



                                        VIPARYA IS WRONG KNOWLEDGE

      The second cause of the thought waves in our mind-chitta, is VIPARYA. This is not ethically or morally wrong knowledge or inference. But it is different than what the things are. The standard example is that of a rope looking like snake in dark or the light pole looking like ghost. So there is a pole but due to decreased visibility in darkness, it appears to be a ghost . So when the light is bright and adequate, we can see the pole and the ghost disappears. Now the wrong knowledge can be either painful or not painful.If we think that we are seeing a ghost or a snake it will cause the fear and it is painful. But in case of sky , looking blue, it causes pleasure as the color blue is pleasing to the eyes. So even though the sky is not blue , so the inference or the knowledge is ;wrong;, it is not painful.


                                  PRATYAKSH ANUMAN AAGAM PRAMANANI


   In this5 sutra we are told about the 1st of the 5 vrities or the tendencies . So how do we get the 'knowledge'? The answer is it could be direct  or indirect or it could be told to us by someone that 'knows'.
   The Direct way is the one which we all tend to believe . So When I have seen a car and I see it I can recognise it as a car. If I see a snake , I can know that it is snake . I don't need anyone to tell me that this is a snake . But our eyes can be deceived and the conclusion that we draw, after seeing something or someone can be wrong . But I could be wrong as the snake that I saw can be a rope. Think about a magic show . The magician   makes thing appear and disappear. But is it a reality?So this is not the best way.If we look in the sky and look at the moon, it does not look bigger than our palm. But in reality it is much larger . And what about the other planets that are larger than our earth, they do not appear to be large at all.
   The Indirect way is the other way that we get the information or the knowledge.The standard example is that of smoke and the fire . If we see smoke , then there must be a fire , even though we may not see the fire . But this conclusion can be wrong. What we see and conclude as smoke , may be actually fog and so there may be no fire. These are the things that we can at least see. But what about the things like love or hatred or shy. These things can not be seen but only concluded by person's behaviour only.So here we have no choice.
     Testimony is the third way of to get the knowledge. This is the best way .When a knowledgeable person tells us , we believe it . Lot of people have difficulty with this type of knowledge as they want to experience it themselves.We have no problem accepting that the time is not a fixed measurement, but can be stopped or slowed ,as it was stated by Einstein But if someone says that this was told by Jesus or by someone  who was 'realised' soul , then we have thousand questions . We want it to be experienced by our self . But we don't want to put the hard efforts that will be needed to experience it our self.

Saturday, August 9, 2014


                                  PRAMAN VIPARYAYA VIKALPA NIDRA SMUTAYAH


   In the last sutra it was stated that there are 5 things that can cause the mind to have thought waves. In this sutra  we are told what are these 5 things that cause us have thoughts. So all the thoughts can be attributed to the five different things and these are mentioned to us in this sutra. In next 5 sutras each one is explained to us in great detail.But I will mention the meaning of each one  in this sutra.
   PRAMAN -The PRAMAN means the knowledge or proof for any thing .So when I say 'I know this thing,'question is how do I know this .How did I get that knowledge.This one is explained in the sutra-7.
   VIPARYAYA-When we think we know , but what we know is incorrect or not true, which means it is a "wrong knowledge " it is called viprya. We often say I did not mean it or you misunderstood it , it is VIPARYA  as until is is explained and understood , the knowledge that we think we have is not the knowledge .
    VIKALPA-When we think we 'know' but what we think we know is not there at all  then it is VIKALPA.So in case of VIPARYA, there is some reality, but we misunderstood it . In case of VIKALPA, the words tell us the meaning , but it does not exists.Say for example I say ICE COLD SUN,it does convey the meaning.But the there is no COLD SUN , so this is vikalp.
       NIDRA-Everybody knows the sleep or at least thinks we know the sleep.
       SMRUTI- Smruti means memory.
      So our thought waves come out of one of these five things.

Friday, August 8, 2014


                                VRITAYAH  PANCHATAYAH KLISHTA-AKLISHTA

   When we think about it, the thoughts that come to our mind are many , may be innumerable and of various kinds. But according to this sutra,the can be divides under 5 different classes. So all the thoughts come under only five different varieties. So we need to control several thoughts and some of them cause 'pain' and others cause 'no pain 'or take away the pain .
    The tendencies of the chitta or the thoughts that arise in the mind ,when we have not achieved the Samadhi (self realization ), are going to cause pain. Since the thoughts arise due to ignorance ,all of them can lead to pain.Say I think about eating good food ,expensive house , luxurious car, or great sex , music , anything , all these will cause pain when we find that we can't have it. when we have it instead of getting  satisfaction and not have the desire or thought of having it again, we have more intense thought of having it again. So the indulging in food , alcohol, sex, all of them 'satisfy'our 'thirst' only for short time and the next desire is more intense and more difficult to control.Then when we can not have it , for whatever reason , we are unhappy.
    The thoughts that do not increase our desires are not going to be causing any pain.This is little difficult to understand , but let me try by an example. If I had seen a poor man and thought of giving him some food or money, would it be a painful thought or a non painful activity? Depends . If I want to give some food , and do not expect any thing in return, not even 'thank you,', then there is no pain associated withe the thought or the activity. But minute that we start thinking about the fruits of action , we will make the activity or the though painful Because , if we think that he is not going to expires gratitude or he is going to come again asking for more money, then the thought becomes painful.
     But under any condition all these thoughts can be put in to 5 categories ,according to this sutra.

Wednesday, August 6, 2014


                                    VRITTI SWARUPAM ITARATRA
    In the last one it was stated that the seer is in it's original state, when all the tendencies and inclination and all the waves in the mind are nor there (not suppressed) , then the seer is in it's original 'bliss' status. So when the waters are quite , we can see the bottom. But when the water is muddy we can not see anything. So now they are stating that when we have all the different thoughts or thought waves , then the seer appears to be one with them. I could give one old example. Water has no color. So it will take the color of whatever color one adds to it.But when no color is added,it is of original color, which is no color. Other example is that of a light covered by glass, we may see some of the light. If the the glass is very dark , we will not be able to see the light at all. But if the glass is very clean and transferent, then the light is bright and shining and almost as it would be without the covered by glass.
    So the mind and it's thoughts are driven by the 3 Gunas . And based on the balance in the 3 Gunas , our thoughts are either Satwic or Rajasic or Tamasic But even though there may be GOOD thoughts, they are still thoughts and they cover the real SEER . So it tends to act as if it is mind-body-ego-Intellect etc.So We start saying that I am happy or 'I am sad' or I am rich or I have no money. We are not really referring to the seer. but we are talking about bodily function or related to mind or intellect. But the SEER is independent of all these things . So until we control the tendencies or thoughts of chitta , we can not realise the seer.

Sunday, August 3, 2014


                                   TAD DRASHTAH  SWARUO  AWASTHANAM

                                   THEN THE SEER IS IN IT'S ORIGINAL STATE
     When we control the thoughts that occur in our mind then the seer realises it.s original state.When the soul or the seer or the reflection of the GOD is identifying as the physical body , it is called soul Since the body , physical or astral or for that matter causal , all are related to the 'nature' or PRAKRITY, and is not the spirit,it has all the Gunas and so our thought process is guided by these Gunas and we act upon it .So we continue to have the waves of the thoughts . so the seer is not 'free' to realise it's original state.The common example that is given , is that of a light .If the glass covering the light is blue , the light appear blue ,not white. If the glass covering is very dark , then the light will be very dull or dim. The light is same , but due to external covering it can appear to be blue or red or dim. So the light does not change , but appears to have changed . So when we remove all the external coverings , then the light will appear as it is originally. The only difference in this example is that the original 'light' . or the PURUSHA , has no qualities. But it attaches itself to the body , which has all the good , bad and evil qualities and so it feels  as if it is good , bad or evil.But once all this is cleared, it recognises (not a exact word ).it original status.Since this is reflection of the GOD , it can have the union with HIM , THE GOD only when it has no adulteration by qualities of the body . This creates the BLISS.  


Saturday, August 2, 2014


                              YOGASH CHITTA-VRITTI NIRODH
                             Yoga means control of tendencies of CHITTA.
    The first sutra stated that we are starting the study , explanation of the YOGA . Now the second sutra states that the Yoga is control of tendencies of the mind - chitta. It also indirectly suggests that yoga occurs when the tendencies of the mind are controlled.The chitta can be stated as 'mind stuff'.It could be stated that chitta is precursor to the mind. So the thought process is like a river. It is flowing continuously. It never stops. So in the chitta there is a 'urmi'. like a Wave in the  quite water. This stimulates the mind . So the mind and chitta are practically same . So I will refer to the chitta as mind in future. There are 3 qualities  or GUNAS as they are called in Hindi religion . These are part of Nature and not that of Spirit. So these 3 Gunas guide or may be control our thoughts. The SATWIC -the good quality, the RAJASIC -the activating and lastly the TAMASIC - the laziness in us . So all 3 are always there . Sometimes there is dominance of Satwic , at times there is dominance of Rajasic and then sometimes we have dominance of Tamasic . In individuals one may dominate more than others.But at a given time we have one of these three that guides our thoughts.
      So based on this understanding, our mind has different types of condition of mind . There will be five different states of the mind.These are
      1)MUDHA-CHITTA.When we have not only predominance of Tamasic or may be that is the only quality which is active at that time , our chitta or the mind is called MUDHA. Think about how we are when we indulge in too much alcohol or take drugs or even eat too much.Our mind is dull and can not do anything.Sleep is the normal state when there is predominance of Tamasic gunas.The unconscious state is extreme state of the same .
      2)KSHIPTA-CHITTA.KSHIPT means thrown. So when the mind is thrown to the outside ,there is no way we can concentrate 'inside'At this time there is dominance of Rajasic quality.
      3)VIKSHIPTA -CHITTA.As we progress in our meditative quality,the Satwic guna increases , and Tamasic goes down and Rajasic though present is not as strong as in the KSHIPTA-CHITTA state.So though our thought process is not fully controlled,and at times it goes to the out side subjects or attractions, we are in position to point it inwards. But this is limited.This will be similar to someone doing meditation for 20 or 30 mins and then still attending partiess, drinking alcohol or many other things including attached to money,business etc.Even when one is doing meditation the concentration does not occur for all the time that one is meditating, but it wonders.So the Satwic guna is more , but the Rajasic and Tamasic are still there in significant amount.
      4)EKAGRA-CHITTA. EKA means single ,and Agra means pointedness. So this means mind has 'single pointedness.So when the mind can achieve the single pointed concentration and not waver in different other thoughts , this mind is called ekagra.Not only the mind does not waver while we are doing the meditation , but even otherwise mind does not think of activities like parties or sex or other activities of sense organ pleasures.In this state of mind the Satwic guna is quite dominant and there is very little Tamasic guna but some Rajasic guna is still there.
      5)NIRUDHDHA -CHITTA. So in this state of mind ,there are no thoughts. All are controlled and the mind does not wander.So now we have full control over our thought process and it is not because we are controlling it , but we just don't have the Rajasic or Tamasic thoughts. So we are not doing any activities for getting credits(doing activities to get credit is Rajasic activity)or not doing activities for only sense organ pleasures,which is Tamasic.
     So when we achieve this state then there is union with GOD . So YOGA -THE UNION OCCURS WHEN ALL THE THOUGHTS ARE CONTROLLED .


Friday, August 1, 2014


                                     ATHA YOGA ANUSHASANAM
     This is the first verse. Many a times the scriptures begin by ATHA. The meaning of this one verse is that. "this is the Yoga discipline ".The shasanam means discipline or beginning of the Yoga. Adding ANU is to indicate that this was derived from the vedic religion or even beyond that it wants to indicate that this was 'given ' to us by GOD. In reality it was given by the HIRANYAGARBHA.there are various kinds of yoga , the 'Karma Yoga ' is the union with God by doing action. the Dnyan Yoga is union with God through Knowledge and the Bhakti Yoga is union with God through Devotion. The Patanjali sutra Yoga is the union with God through MEDITATION.So this knowledge was given to us by The god of astral world.
    Some concept of origin of the universe and Indian philosophy is essential to understand this.The supreme GOD is without any qualities or desires. He is present every place that is there. If he wants to create this universe then he must think about it and the should have desire to create it. So how can that happen ? Th explanation is that when the the desire less spirit comes in contact with the nature with qualities , it starts the new universe.(In Hind religion , it is called the PURUSH and PRAKRITI ). So when the there is a creation , there is a 'cause' for it and then there is 'blue print' for it , and then there is final product . So the first is called the CAUSAL, then the blue print is called ASTRAL and the actual world is the physical world . Now all these three worlds exist in MACROCOSM and MICROCOSM.Each of these worlds have a in charge god The causal world at Macrocosm is created and governed by Ishwara and at microcosm it is by Pragnya (translated as knowledge ).The astral world at macrocosm is created and governed by HIRANYAGARBHA and at microcosm by Tejas (translated as energy or light).The physical universe is created and governed by Virat at macrocosm and by Vishwa at microcosm. This quite smiler to what is said in the Revelation 8-2, when it says there were seven Angels before God's Throne.
      So this Hiranyagarbha gave the knowledge of meditation and ways to get united with the GOD and the means of doing so.This came down to us through sages .The PATANJALI was one of them. So since this is GOD'S spoken word, the beginning states ATHA.  ,